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Magnetic Particle Testing Penetrant Testing ( PT)

Penetrant Testing ( PT)

Magnetic Particle Inspection is used to identify surface and near surface discontinuities in ferromagnetic materials such as steel and iron. The Technique uses the principle that magnetic lines of force (flux) will be distorted by the presence of a discontinuity. Discontinuities (for example, cracks) are located from the flux distortion following the application of fine magnetic particles to the area under test.

Course Description :

This course provides the student with 32 hours of training in the Magnetic Particle Testing method designed around Aerospace, Automobile, Pressure Vessel, Powerplant Industry requirements. The student will learn the basics of the Magnetic Particle method and have a working knowledge of its application and limitations. The laboratory portion of the course will train the student to set up and properly maintain magnetic particle systems, and enable them to develop and apply techniques in accordance with customer/industry specifications and standards.

Applicable Standards and Documents :

This training program was developed to meet the commercial, aerospace and customer requirements to include: ASNT SNT-TC-1A; ASTM E1444, E709 and ASME Sect V.

Magnetic Particle Testing
  • Level I and II
  • Training Course Outline

This course covers the principles of Magnetic Particle Testing and prepares a candidate to :

  • Setup and calibrate equipment
  • Interpret and Evaluate Results with respect to Applicable Codes, Standards and Specifications
  • Specific Evaluations for Accept or Reject Determinations according to written Instructions
  • Familiar with the scope and limitations of the Methods
  • Write test reports


Training Material is presented in Module that are followed by Quizzes

Certification Module

Personnel Certification : ASNT SNT-TC-1A

Module 1: Manufacturing Discontinuities

  • Types of Discontinuities: – Inherent, Processing and Service
  • Casting Discontinuities :- Hot Tear, Cold Shut, Porosity, Shrinkage
  • Primary Processing Discontinuities including discontinuities in Rolling, Forging, Drawing, Extruding
  • Secondary Processing Discontinuities including discontinuities in Grinding, Heat Treating, Machining, Welding, Plating
  • Service Discontinuities:- Erosion, Wear, Fatigue, Corrosion, Creep, Hydrogen Attack

Module 2: Theory of Magnetism

  • Magnetic field, Lines of force, Flux density
  • Definitions of Permeability, Reluctance, Retentivity, Residual Magnetism and Coercive Force
  • Diamagnetic, Paramagnetic and Ferromagnetic materials
  • eakage flux
  • Fleming's Right Hand and Left Hand Rule
  • Types of Magnetic Fields: Circular, Longitudinal, Vector
  • Hysteresis Curve

Module 3: Methods OF Magnetiization

  • Magnetization By Means of Electric Current
  • Types of current AC, HWDC
  • Circular field: Head Shot (Direct Contact), Prods and Central Conductor Techniques, Offset Central Conductor
  • Advantages and disadvantages of circular field
  • Longitudinal field: Coils and Yoke
  • Advantages and disadvantages of Longitudinal Field
  • AC and DC Field Distribution in a Magnetic and a Nonmagnetic Conductor
  • Demagnetization

Module 4: Equipment

  • Training Material is presented in Module that are followed by Quizzes
  • Wet Horizontal, Mobile and Portable Equipments
  • Fluorescent testing, Black Light
  • Accessories

Module 5: Mediums and Their Preparation

  • Dry and Wet method
  • Particles: Dry and Wet
  • Properties of particles
  • Visibility of particles
  • Methods of Application
  • Contamination of Magnetic Particles
  • Settling Test Procedure
  • Concentration for Wet suspensions as per ASME Sec V Article 7
  • Bath Maintenance

Module 6: Applications

  • Residual and Continuous Method
  • Magnetic Particle Inspection of Solid Cylindrical Parts, Gears, Multiple diameter Articles, Discs, Hollow Cylindrical Articles
  • Selection of proper method of magnetization
  • Verification of magnetic fields
  • Checking the adequacy of field using the Pie gauge, shims
  • Magnetic Rubber Inspection
  • Module 7: Types of Indications
  • Interpretation including Relevant, False, Non-relevant indications
  • MT Inspection Procedures


  • ASME Section V Article 7 2004
  • ASME Section VIII (Accept/Reject Criteria)
  • ASME B 31.1 – Power Piping
  • ASME B 31.3 – Petrochemical Piping


  • ASTM E-709
  • ASTM E-1444
  • Other codes and standards can be discussed if prearranged with the instructor at the time of registration

Practical Training

  • MT Yoke: Dry Visible, Wet Visible, Wet Fluorescent
  • Central Conductor
  • Coil Shot - Longitudinal
  • Ketos ( Betz) Ring – Depth of penetration
  • Bubbler/Squirter Technique
  • Training on Weld defect samples (Flaw Tech sample kits), OCTG samples


  • General
  • Specific
  • Practical Tests

Candidates must score a minimum of 70 % in each test and a minimum of 80% average for all the three tests

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